Archive

Tag Archives: lansdscape repair

The following paddock layout offers a useful way of integrating trees into a grazing enterprise on sloping country. The aim of this approach is to minimise the impacts on production during the establishment phase, while offering significant benefits to both landscape and livestock once stock are reintroduced.

PADDOCK LAYOUT

Although shown here as a grid for illustration purposes, in a best case scenario the pattern is applied on a keyline cultivation layout, which offers extra water distribution benefits to the establishing trees. This particular example represents one of six paddocks, roughly equal in size on a small farm. A similar pattern can be adapted to a range of landscapes and different sized properties.

paddock layout

In short, the design incorporates a belt of trees which are planted across the top of the paddock, with water across the base. As seen in the image above, the paddock is divided into smaller cells by utilising temporary electric fencing, the width and quantity based on the desired number of grazing divisions on the property.

FENCING DIVISIONS

The temporary fence is run straight up and down the slope. Although perceived as an erosion risk by many at first, due to stock tracking up and down the slope, the short presence of animals and significant pasture rest & recovery offered by a time-controlled grazing approach means that this problem is largely avoided. On the contrary, significant benefits are offered by taking such an approach as outlined further down.

There are many options for electric fencing. The following end assembly of David Marsh’s is a simple  and cheap option for permanent electric fencing and KiwiTech fencing is the most elegant version of temporary fencing I’ve come across, allowing rapid assembly and disassembly while on a quad bike.

equ end assembly

Simple and cheap end assembly for permanent electric fencing. Design & Image: David Marsh

Kiwitech catalogue

WATER PLACEMENT

Dick Richardson has practiced Holistic Management grazing for almost as long as anyone and was one of the people credited in the original Holistic Management Handbook when they were detailing the how to’s. Dick, who comes from South Africa, now manages Hanamino, the Carbon Cocky award winning property of Charlie Arnott near Boorowa.

A few years ago, he told me that he was going to the effort of moving troughs from the top of the paddocks to the bottom. His reasoning was that although he understood the thought process behind why someone would put the water at the top of a paddock (to get nutrient in the form of dung transported to the highest point), it goes against the animal’s instincts. If you watch the cattle when they enter a new paddock, the highest point is often the last place they will look for water, meaning they are wasting effort and getting stressed, all of which affects production. Placing water where they expect to find it can pay dividends.

There are many options for portable water, but once again you can’t go too far past the consummate professional David Marsh.

water infrastructure

Left: Trough on skids, towed easily behind the 4 wheeler. Right: Quick couplings for emptying trough and connecting main line. Large diameter feed-pipe allows a smaller volume trough to be utilised resulting in less wastage and an easier time when shifting. Images: David Marsh

NUTRIENT CYCLING

Through the Millennia, there has been a common behavioural pattern in the wild herd: the open meadow offers sustenance and hydration, while the wooded hills offer a sheltered camp with a wide view, important for the ever hunted.

cattle under trees

By mimicking natural patterns, there are often advantages to be gained. Animal impact and pasture recovery offered by an Holistic Management grazing approach is a classic example. The age old pattern mentioned above, of drinking and feeding on the low ground and camping on the high ground is another which can be harnessed.

Gravity is one of entropy’s playing partners. The flowing path of water is the means by which the land is slowly eroded into the ocean. Life systems do their best to slow this process, and in the case of the herbivore, it sets gravity’s goal back a step or two.

Laden with a gut-full of food and water, the ruminant tramps up the hill seeking the afternoon shade. Arising after its rest, a parcel and a squirt of goodness are deposited on the ground, ensuring the ongoing health of the landscape below.

Although it’s on a smaller scale, the grazing strips running up and down the slope, with water at the base and woodland at the top, allow this timeless and fertility-renewing pattern to take place once again.

nutrient cycling

Single cell movement

Left: Stock feeding in the open paddock in the morning. Right: Lounging in the shade in the afternoon, transporting nutrients uphill.

A reconnection of valley floor to hilltop is one of the processes which both Paul Newell and Peter Andrews consider important, and has been implemented for that reason by Soils For Life Case Study participant Martin Royds.

PLANTING DENSITY & LAYOUT

The chosen tree planting density is another aim to mimic successful natural processes, in this case the grassy woodlands which existed in abundance at the time of Euro settlement. By many early explorers’ accounts, both pasture and soil were in excellent condition at the time.

Planting pattern2

Planting Pattern: (Click for a larger view)

Inspirational tree-planting grazier John Weatherstone of Lyndfield Park, has an entire paddock of Gleditsia triacanthos (Honey Locust) planted in this exact spacing (trees @ 7m, rows @ 14m).

HL & cattle 2

From a production perspective, this layout enables the trees to be separated from stock using a (semi) permanent electric fence, while the inter row can be cropped for the period of time that stock are excluded, making productive use of that land. When applied to sloping country, a keyline layout provides equidistant rows while also offering water harvesting benefits.

25 years after planting that paddock, John says, “It’s the best pasture on the property. Even if they didn’t produce any pods (the Honey Locust), if I could have every paddock planted out like that I would.”

HL & cattle 1

This statement is a result of John observing that highly palatable C3 grasses can benefit greatly from the dappled shade provided by the Gleditsia, staying greener for longer into the summer. Studies in the Southern Tablelands have shown that native pasture can also increase production when provided with shade.

Couple the pasture benefits with the fact that the trees offer shade and shelter to stock, thereby reducing stress and increasing production potential, as well as the multiple benefits offered by Gledisia (see below) and you can start to understand John’s glowing endorsement.

SPECIES

In this example, Gleditsia triacanthos inermis (Thornless honey locust) makes up 3/4 of the stand, while appropriate indigenous woodland species the rest.

The honey locust can provide multiple livestock and landscape benefits. Examples from the Lyndfield Park Story include:

  • Serve as a fire retardant
  • Deep rooted and are drought tolerant
  • Produce nutritious pods for stock fodder (up to 100km per mature tree per season. These pods have a nutritive value equal to oats grain or quality pasture and are produced with no extra costs once the trees are established)
  • Produce foliage which is also palatable to stock
  • Reduce the amount of water reaching the water table (thereby helping fight dry land salinity)
  • Provides dappled shade (see background) which maintains lush pasture longer into the summer
  • Suited to the open conditions of a woodland setting and allows pasture growth right up to the trunk
  • Late to leaf out and early to drop, maximising winter sun to C3 grasses beneath
  • Recycle nutrients (which had leached below the root zone of pasture plants, these are recycled back onto the soil surface through the foliage and pods)
  • Slow the increase in soil acidity
  • Produce timber (a dense hardwood with a number of uses)
  • Produce excellent honey
  • Enhance the view (it’s an attractive tree that is green in summer, turning gold in autumn)
  • Cycle deep nutrients which are returned to the surface as leaf litter

A word of warning on Gleditsia triacanthos: Honey Locust are a listed noxious weed in Queensland and in a climate that is more favourable than the Southern Tablelands, there is significant woody weed potential. If planted from seed, they will usually develop sharp 25mm thorns which can go through tyres. To avoid this situation, and ensure that each tree produces a significant quantity of nutritious pods, trees should be budded with material from a heavy bearing thornless variety (see below). 1 in 10 should be a male tree to ensure good pod set.

Budding Gleditsia

Budding seedlings using material from heavy bearing thornless varieties is essential to avoid tyre puncturing thorns in the paddock.

By including a portion of appropriate indigenous woodland species, this offers long term benefits to native biodiversity, with the associated benefits to production. (To avoid further pollution of successful genetics, aim to source seed from the local winners of the region.)

If you’re interested in design assistance for your property, feel free to get in touch

Disclaimer: While the information and images we publish are formulated in good faith, the contents do not take into account all the social, environmental and regulatory factors which need to be considered before putting that information into practice.  Accordingly, no person should rely on anything contained within as a substitute for specific professional advice.

You can subscribe to this site or visit and ‘Like’ our Facebook page to hear about future posts.

Article and Images © Cam Wilson, Earth Integral, 2013

Advertisements

Regrowth dry-sclerophyll forest like you see below is a common sight across the Southern Tablelands. It would be fair to estimate this growth at 10-15 years old, but in actual fact, the trees in this image at Mulloon Creek Natural Farms (MCNF) were all dated by an ANU researcher at 80 to 100. This forest is stagnant and moribund.

It’s a common story: hillsides were ringbarked, grazed and burnt repeatedly by early pastoralists of the region, until it no longer paid to do so (i.e., the decent soil was gone). With an even race for the light, the young Eucalypts take off (in this case the epicormic regrowth from the last ringbarking effort), but when the canopies of the closely spaced trees touch, they basically hit pause, limited by competition for nutrients, moisture and light.

moribund forest

Unless you’ve got the right species and are after coppiced poles, this result isn’t good from a number of perspectives, whether it’s sawlog production (insufficient size), habitat (lack of hollows and minimal niches), or soil conservation (exclusion of grass and shrub groundcover) to name a few.

Research carried out by students of ANU Professor John Field showed the effects of various treatments (thinning, exclusion, disturbance & fertiliser) on the health of the forest (stand basal area, and diversity of species). See the abstract of their findings at the bottom of this post.

These studies have informed the guidelines for carrying out Private Native Forestry (PNF). This legislation provides a sensible set of guidelines to forest management which allows a good balance between production and ecology.

Even low quality timber from a forest like this can be put to some good uses (I’m particularly interested in erosion control uses, but poles, posts, firewood, mushroom cultivation, mulch, & charcoal are a few obvious other uses) while at the same time, the health of the forest as a whole can be improved, providing environmental benefits to the landscape below and potentially the surrounding climate.

The PNF regulations allow this work to be carried out without the risk of massive fines, and a PNF Property Vegetation Plan can be easily obtained (find out more here). The following are a series of images taken at Nanima Gold, the property of Mike and Denise McKenzie where we’re carrying out some gully repair work.

Pre-felling, trees are marked as either existing habitat or recruitment trees under the Private Native Forestry guidelines. Trees are thinned to a given basal area depending on the forest type.

Pre-felling, trees are marked as either existing habitat or recruitment trees under the Private Native Forestry guidelines. Trees are thinned to a given basal area depending on the forest type.

The felled logs are lopped to a suitable size for whatever your intended use. In this case, the majority of the poles were carted down to a gully where we are building fascines as part of a Landcare sponsored erosion control project at Nanima Gold. (The fascines are a topic for another post.)

contour brush

Following the removal of any logs over 80-100mm, the remaining brush can be thrown five metres either side, creating 10m wide contours which snake around the landscape (as a quick way to mark rough contours along a slope: stand downhill, hold your arms out straight, stick your thumbs up and you’d be surprised how accurately you can find your next mark).

The brush contours become more important the barer the understorey, such as in this older project I built for The Mulloon Institute.

Flash runoff on this hillside has carried soil and organic material downhill

In that particularly degraded piece of forest, the bare path in the centre of this photo was caused by flash runoff, carrying soil and organic material downhill.

After one decent downpour, this brush contour has collected a significant amount of soil and organic debris

After one decent downpour, this brush contour collected a significant amount of soil and organic debris, acting like a hillside leaky weir.

When you create conditions in which worms are happy inside a dead forest like this, you know you're on a reasonable path

When you create conditions in which worms are happy inside a dead forest like this, you know there’s a reasonable chance you’re on the right track. I wish I could press fast forward and see what the result of these brush contours is in 50 years time.

More studies have shown the formation of hydrophobic (water repellant) soils under some Eucalypts. This is believed to be caused in part by mycorrhizal fungi, which help to direct moisture towards the roots of the associated Eucalypt, while creating unfavourable conditions for establishment of any competition.

The following pictures were taken after 80mm of rain, illustrating the extreme hydrophobicity in the Eucalyptus rossii forest at MCNF, pictured above (click on an image for a larger view).

Therefore, in these conditions the seeds of understorey grasses and shrubs either don’t have the moisture to trigger germination in the first place, or if they do germinate, they have to fight through 50mm of bone dry material to get any moisture. Hence, the relatively bare forest floor in the pictures above.

With this in mind, an extra layer of disturbance which may be useful in promoting under storey establishment is the short term integration of pigs, their rooting action helping to break up the fungal mats and reduce competition while grasses and ground covers establish (the pigs having moved on of course).

Disclaimer: To avoid hefty fines, ensure you follow relevant local legislation. No person should rely on anything contained within as a substitute for specific professional advice.

You can visit and ‘Like’ our Facebook page to hear about future posts.

Article and Images © Cam Wilson, Earth Integral, 2013

Private Native Forests, Southern Tablelands of NSW: Silvicultural Treatments Revisited

Simon Roberts, Chris Chartres, John Field & Chris McElhinny, 2006.

Forestry Program, SRES, ANU, ACT.

Abstract

Regrowth stands of dry sclerophyll forest extend from Central Victoria through the NSW Southern Tablelands to Southern Queensland (Field and Banks 1999). The ‘Mulloon Creek’ property, 15 km east of Bungendore in NSW is representative of this forest type. In the past, the property was extensively cleared (1890’s, 1920’s and 1950’s) and grazed (until the early 1980’s), and now supports a regrowth forest possessing a degraded structure compared to its predicted pre-European state.

In 1991, Field and Banks (and others) established a silvicultural experiment to investigate the effects of different treatments on this forest. Their preliminary findings (Field and Banks 1999) indicated treatments such as thinning and burning had little effect on overstorey or understorey growth, however fencing to exclude grazing by native and feral herbivores promoted the establishment and growth of understorey plants. The long term results, however, demonstrate that these silvicultural treatments are effective management techniques.

One-way analysis of each treatment on the overstorey (statistically in isolation of each other) reveals that thinning and burning both had significant effects on Relative Growth Rates (%BA Increment/Yr). The effect of thinning on the treatments had the most significant impact on tree growth. Over the twelve year period however, the burnt treatment had a significantly greater percentage annual basal area increment. Unlike thinning or burning, the effect on relative growth rate of exclusion fencing is not significantly different. Similarly to fencing, fertiliser had very little effect on relative growth rates of trees at the end of seven years since the application.

The understorey results were evaluated in a similar way. Only the fences treatment had a significantly higher mean richness of perennial species (21) compared to the unfenced treatment which had only 14.5 species. Fencing to exclude grazing animals has long been regarded as critical for the regeneration of native understorey plants.

Reference

Field, J.B., Banks, J.C.G., (1999). Effects of Silvicultural Treatments on Growth Rates of Trees and Diversity of Understorey in a Private Dry Sclerophyll Forest, Southern Tablelands, NSW. IFA conference “Practicing Forestry Today”, Hobart

Below are some photos and videos taken along a transect of the floodplain on Peter and Kate Marshall’s property. I hope you enjoy these images (taken 36 hrs after a 180mm overnight event), with the creek running crystal clear and spread out across the floodplain on Sunningdale.

To put what you’re seeing in context, most other watercourses in the region are restricted predominantly to the channel due to the erosion and incision caused by past land management practices. Although man-made, the hydrology in this landscape is much closer to the way it operated pre Euro settlement, in an intact chain of ponds or swampy meadow system. The noise of the frogs in the videos is testament to the significant aquatic and wetland habitat which has also been created.

Photo locations taken across a transect of the floodplain at Sunningdale

Locations of photos taken across a transect of the floodplain at Sunningdale. (For some scale, the image is 350m wide, and the main channel located at the meandering tree-line, flowing from bottom to top).

To flick through a larger slideshow of the images, click on any of the thumbnails below

Short video locations taken across a transect of the floodplain at Sunningdale

Locations of short videos taken across a transect of the floodplain at Sunningdale

Finally, another interesting little clip is of the ground literally bubbling as the subsurface flow rehydrates the gravel and sediments below the surface. This stored moisture benefits the land’s production and drought proofing resilience, while also providing a more sustained base-flow to the landscape below.

See the articles tagged as Key floodplain processes for more information on what is being achieved from a landscape perspective.

Please visit and ‘Like’ our Facebook page to hear about future posts.

Disclaimer: Where water flow is concerned there are substantial risks involved. While the information and images we publish are formulated in good faith, with the intention of raising awareness of landscape rehydration processes, the contents do not take into account all the social, environmental and regulatory factors which need to be considered before putting that information into practice.  Accordingly, no person should rely on anything contained within as a substitute for specific professional advice.

Article and Images © Cam Wilson, Earth Integral, 2013

A stroll, post flood

A stroll, post flood

For those who haven’t seen it, the following is a series of You-tube clips with Peter Andrews interviewed quite skilfully by Martin Royds at Baramul Stud. These clips, put together in 2007 by Paul Cochrane and the Natural Sequence Association, are one of the best overviews of Peter’s observations and hypothesis.  

Peter Andrews and Martin Royds discuss a leaky weir at the Natural Sequence Farming demonstration at Barramul Stud

Peter Andrews and Martin Royds discuss a leaky weir at the Natural Sequence Farming demonstration at Barramul Stud

(The following clips are placed in the same sequence as they appeared on the original DVD)

Peter Andrews at Baramul Stud – Introduction

Peter Andrews at Baramul Stud – Rock Walls

Peter Andrews at Baramul Stud – Weeds Pt1

Peter Andrews at Baramul Stud – Weeds Pt2

Peter Andrews at Baramul Stud – Deenergise

Peter Andrews at Baramul Stud – Floodplains

Peter Andrews at Baramul Stud – Wetlands 1

Peter Andrews at Baramul Stud – Wetlands 2

Peter Andrews at Baramul Stud – Tall Plants

Peter Andrews at Baramul Stud – Runnels

Peter Andrews at Baramul Stud – End of the flow

Peter Andrews at Baramul Stud – Erosion

It’s hard to encapsulate all that is happening on Peter and Kate Marshall’s property Sunningdale in one go, but the following series of photos will give you a bit of a taste.

Peter is a pretty special guy. He’s got an understanding of the wider landscape processes which equals Peter Andrews, but he’s also a trained forester and is as widely read and knowledgable as anyone I have met. Add that combination to a desire to fix up some of the considerable degradation caused by his family in past generations and his wife Kate who is equally passionate and equally keen to heal their landscape and you have a pretty powerful combination.

Since commencing their work 22 years ago, the Marshall’s haven’t had it easy. Despite recognition from some of the top mycologists, hydrologists and foresters from here and abroad, within their own community they were largely ostracised early on, from members of the farming community on the one hand because they were seen as the thin edge of a green wedge, and from members of Landcare network on the other because they were using exotic species which Peter knew to have more potential in some land repair roles. Electric fences were cut, waterways were poisoned, authorities were called resulting in the threat of large fines, their children were bullied on the school bus and nuts were even taken off tractor wheels.

An amazing sign of the times is that on Friday night, the Marshall’s received a Champions of the Catchment award from the Upper Shoalhaven Landcare network. This award was introduced to recognise those who have done outstanding work in land repair which differs from the standard few lines of Eucalypts which usually fit the award criteria.

The next day, a tour of their place was conducted. “This is uplifting” was the way that one participant summed it up. Here’s a glance at a small portion of the uplifting work they they have carried out.

Peter leads off the tour, past the considerable biomass produced by Salix and Populus species after only 11 years of growth. These trees moderate the climate significantly through wind protection and transpiration effects.

Here, Salix plantings replicate the gallery forests which existed at the time of European settlement. Exotic species have been chosen due to the changed conditions making the original dominant species, Casuarina, very difficult to establish (heavier more acidic sediment, hare and rabbit predation, reduced frost protection due to complete deforestation and a dehydrated landscape).

Higher on the slope, Casuarinas have been easier to establish. Here, the ones in the background are being pruned for valuable furniture timber as are a wide range of other farm forestry species, suited to different sites on the property

Pinus radiata are pruned up for better quality timber. They were originally established due to their recognition by the tax man, but the focus has changed over time with the most valuable crop now below the ground, in the form of edible mushrooms such as slippery jack and saffron milk cap.

Here the group observes the understorey of ferns which has established beneath Blackwood and local tea tree. This site was dense with blackberries only 12 years without a tree in site. Seed filled brush mattresses of Leptospermum and mud encapsulated seed balls of Acacia were the main reveg techniques used.

Due to the repair of the main creek, the floodplain has rehydrated. These flats have been excavated to tap into the groundwater, creating a mosaic of water and earth, rich in biodiversity in some places…….

……..and planted out to useful agricultural crops in other places such as cricket bat timber or it would be perfect for ducks, fruit and veg if someone wishes to start an enterprise.

Fodder trees are grown in the hydrated landscape, the leaves and bark of which are devoured by goats and sheep. The left over woody biomass can either become material for building erosion-repairing fascines, or innoculated with saprophytic edible mushrooms like shitake.

A number of methods are used for establishing pole plantings while stock are in the paddock such as these tech-screwed tyres.

Wire mesh can also be used to protect trees from ringbarking

One of the Marshall’s most valuable and successful crops is the black truffle. This is a new orchard which has been established this season, using locally adapted oaks with excellent form for light penetration, and innoculated from a portion of their own truffle stock which they put aside this season.

These oaks were a pleasure to plant into the well prepared bed. This site was like concrete when Peter and Kate first purchased it, but after successive rips with the Keyline plough and a series of green manures, you couldn’t ask for a better start to life if you were a tap-rooted tree.

A number of stands of monopodial bamboos have been established for a variety of uses across the property including soil stabilisation, building material, fodder, biochar production and garden stakes which is an enterprise their daughter Rita runs.

What was once a bare walled gully is now a stabilised chain of ponds

This large world class wetland was created on another one of the hydrated flats, which now has black swans nesting. This particular piece of extensive work seems very altruistic, which it is based on the desire to reverse some of the degradation caused by each of Peter and Kate’s families over the generations, but this area of beautiful wetland habitat also offers significant hydration benefits to the surrounding landscape, with groundwater essentially backing up the slopes.

Please visit and ‘Like’ our Facebook page to hear about future posts.

Article and images Copyright Cam Wilson, Earth Integral, 2012

There are many different ways that Peter and Kate Marshall have turned degraded sites around on ‘Sunningdale’, setting landscape rehydration and repair processes into action.

One of the methods was this series of vegetated earth banks, which are situated in a second order gully, higher in the catchment. The photos tell the story.

Fabric protecting the 8 newly constructed earth banks in 2004. Sedges were pinned on top of the material, the rhizomes binding the banks together

In 2012, the vegetation is well established and the banks have remained stable, in a fashion very similar to those in an intact chain of ponds. The ponds are beginning to shrink as the sedge and rush marches into the water, providing valuable wetland habitat as they do

Here, sediment and algae is caught by the sedge covered banks during a small flow event, providing material and nutrients to assist with further vertical growth of the banks

In this photo, the shovel has cut down to the fabric which remains below the surface, showing the material which has built up. Sediment caught and trapped by the tussocks, rhizomes and root mats of the sedge, as well as their bulk organic material, help the banks to grow in height

As a result of these simple earthworks, the ponds and wetland plants themselves provide valuable wetland habitat, whilst also improving the drought resilience of the landscape through the lateral hydration of the surrounding floodplain In time, as the banks continue to aggrade, this will provide further benefits by returning flood flows to the floodplain surface.

If anyone is interested in spending some time working on the Marshall’s property, feel free to contact us and we can put you in touch.

Or, if you’re interested in getting these processes happening once again on your land, contact us to find out about our design, consultancy and implementation services.

Disclaimer: Where water flow is concerned there are substantial risks involved. While the information and images we publish are formulated in good faith, with the intention of raising awareness of landscape rehydration processes, the contents do not take into account all the social, environmental and regulatory factors which need to be considered before putting that information into practice.  Accordingly, no person should rely on anything contained within as a substitute for specific professional advice.

Article and Images © Cam Wilson, Earth Integral, 2012

Peter Hazell showing the intact chain of ponds, on the property he is stewarding near Braidwood.

“One thing I noted was the striking difference in the primary productivity between the swampy meadows and the incised equivalent: it was chalk and cheese.” That’s Peter Hazell’s take on the first time he laid eyes on the property he and his wife Donna are now managing.

At the time, back in 2001, as a seasoned NRM scientist, Peter was conducting a land cover classification for the Landcare network. Using satellite imagery, different land cover types would show up as different patterns in the spectral analysis, and Peter would then head out into the field to ground truth it.

While doing so, there were areas in the upper catchment that were standing out as very vibrant so he thought he’d better take a look. It turned out that every place that was showing up as the richest land cover class in terms of primary production were the intact swampy meadows and chain of pond systems. In contrast, the drained, incised systems showed up as rather dull, with low production.

As well as stewarding one of the rare intact chain of pond systems that remains, Peter’s contribution to protecting and restoring these valuable environmental assets has included working closely with Peter Andrews while working as an NRM Facilitator with the Federal Department of Environment Water Heritage and the Arts, playing an instrumental role in getting the Natural Sequence Farming demonstration to happen at Mulloon Creek Natural Farms, involvement in the Upper Shoalhaven Natural Sequence Association, and potentially more research down the track.

Meanwhile, in 2003, Donna published what remains one of the only peer reviewed papers looking at the ecology of chain of pond systems, in particular the benefits of intact systems to frogs within an agricultural landscape. It’s a great paper and in my opinion remains one of the clearest overviews of the post-Euro settlement stream degradation process (you can access a copy here).

As a great example of the landscape hydration, leaky weirs, wetland habitat and natural erosion control we’re aiming to reinstate, I’ll share more about their property in future. This will include some interesting saline groundwater results, the way water pulses through the floodplain sediments, and some very simple small-scale erosion control which can be done, like Peter and Donna have, in your spare time with a couple of kids in tow.

When the results become public, I’ll also share more about the research which Nathan Weber has conducted on the Hazell’s property as part of his PhD on the effects of Natural Sequence Farming on upper catchment floodplain processes.

Article and Diagrams © Cam Wilson, Earth Integral, 2012